His ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar system.
"You appear to be astonished, " Holmes said, smiling at my expression. "Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it. You see, I consider that a man's brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose: A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty inlaying his hand upon it. It is a mistake to think that the little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you know before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones."
"But the Solar System! " I protested.
"What the deuce is it to me?" he interrupted impatiently.
One morning, I picked up a magazine from the table and attempted to while away the time with it, while my companion munched silently at his toast. One of the articles had a pencil mark at the heading, and I naturally began to run my eye through it.
Its somewhat ambitious title was "The Book of Life, " and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way. It struck me as being a remarkable mixture of shrewdness and of absurdity. The reasoning was close and intense, but the deduction appeared to me to be far-fetched and exaggerated. The writer claimed by a momentary expression, a twitch of a muscle or a glance of an eye, to fathom a man's inmost thought. Deceit, according to him, was impossibility in the case of one trained to observation and analysis. His conclusions were as infallible as so many propositions of Euclid. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as anecromancer.
"From a drop of water, "said the writer, "a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic. So all life is a great chain, the nature of which is known whenever we are shown a single link of it. Like all other arts, the science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it. "
This smartly written piece of theory I could not accept until a succession of evidences justified it.
1. What is the author's attitude toward Holmes?
2. What way did the author take to stick out Holmes' uniqueness?
[A] By deduction.
[B] By explanation.
[C] By contrast.
[D] By analysis.
3. What was the Holmes' idea about knowledge-learning?
[A] Learning what every body learned.
[B] Learning what was useful to you.
[C] Learning whatever you came across.
[D] Learning what was different to you.
4. What did the article mentioned in the passage talk about?
[A] One may master the way of reasoning through observation.
[B] One may become rather critical through observation and analysis.
[C] One may become rather sharp through observation and analysis.
[D] One may become practical through observation and analysis.
1. A 赞扬。作者以无知烘托人物之有知，以他本人的反对批评观点来证明人物的正确。否定及所谓机刺旨在铺垫。正反对比赞扬福之精明强悍，才智超人，洞察力强。
2. C 作者采用对比手法。
3. B 学习对你有用之物。第二段福之表白，他把头脑比作一个小小的空屋，不能随意选择家具(知识)塞满空间，应选择“有用之才”，免得填满了废物，把有用之才挤出去。
4. C 通过观察和分析人会变得很敏锐。最后二段都是讲福所写文章的内容。善于观察和分析的人可以一眼看透人之本质，一点水能知大西洋。这种一叶知秋的本领是通过长期观察、分析研究而得。也就是说，通过观察分析，人可以变得敏感聪慧，因为万物都有联系。
这本书的书名有点野心勃勃，叫《生命之书》(The Book of Life)，它试图通过对一个善于观察的人所经历的一切进行准确而系统的考察，来展示他能学到多少东西。在我看来，这是一种精明与荒谬的奇妙结合。推理严密而激烈，但在我看来，这种推论似乎牵强附会，言过其实。作者声称，通过瞬间的表情，肌肉的抽动或眼神的一瞥，就能洞悉一个人内心深处的想法。在他看来，对于一个受过观察和分析训练的人来说，欺骗是不可能的。他的结论和欧几里得的许多命题一样可靠。在外行人看来，他的研究结果是如此惊人，以至于在他们了解了他的研究过程之前，他们很可能会认为他是一名马术师。