TV Linked to Lower Marks
A) The effect of television on children has been debated ever since the first sets were turned on. Now three new studies find that too much tube time can lower test scores, retard learning and even predict college performance. The reports appear in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Ado-lescent Medicine.
B) In the first report, researchers studied the effect that having a TV in a child's bedroom can have on third graders. "We looked at the household media environment in relation to academic achievementon mathematics, reading and language arts tests," said study author Dina L.G. Borzekowski, an as-sistant professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
C) Borzekowski and her colleague, Dr. Thomas Robinson of Stanford University, collected data on386 third graders and their parents about how much TV the children watched, the number of TV sets, computers and video game consoles in the household and where they were. They also collected data on how much time the children spent using the different media, as well as the time spent doing homework and reading. The researchers found that the media in the household, where it is and how it is used can have a profound effect on learning. "We found that the household media environment has a very close association with performance on the different test scores," Borzekowski said.
D) "A child who has a TV in his or her bedroom is likely to have a score that is eight points lower on a mathematics test compared to a child who doesn't have a TV in the bedroom," she noted. These children also scored lower on the reading and language arts tests. However, children who have ac-cess to a home computer are likely to have higher scores on each of the tests compared with children who don't have access to a home computer, Borzekowski noted.
E) The reasons why TV has this negative effect are not clear, Borzekowski said. "When there's TV in the bedroom, parents are less likely to have control over the content and the amount watched," Borzekowski said. "They are also unable to know how early or how late the set is on. This seems to be associated with kids' performance on academic tests." Borzekowski believes that content and the time the TV is on may be the primary reasons for its negative effect. "If the TV is in the family room, then parents can see the content of what children are watching," she said. "Parents can choose to sit alongside and watch, or turn the set off. A simple and straightforward, positive parenting strategy is to keep the TV out of the child's bedroom, or remove it if it's already there."
F) In the second report, Dr. Robert J. Hancox from the University of Ot ago in Dunedin, New Zealand, and colleagues found, regardless of your intelligence or social background, if you watch a lot of TV during childhood, you are a lot less likely to have a college degree by your mid-20s. In their study, the researchers followed 1,037 people born in 1972 and 1973. Every two years, between the ages of5 and 15, they were asked how much television they watched. The researchers found that those who watched the most television during these years had earned fewer degrees by the time they were 26."We found that the more television the child had watched, the more likely they were to leave school without any qualifications," Hancox said in a prepared statement. "Those who watched little television had the best chance of going on to university and earning a degree."
G) Hancox's team found that watching TV at an early age had the most effect on graduating from college. "An interesting finding was that although teenage viewing was strongly linked to leaving school without any qualifications, it was earlier childhood viewing that had the greatest impact on getting a degree," he said. "This suggests that excessive television in younger children has a long-lasting adverse effect on educational performance."
H) In the third paper, Frederick J. Zimmerman and Dr. Dimitri A. Christakis from the University of Washington report that, for very young children, watching TV can result in lower test scores in mathematics, reading recognition and reading comprehension. "We looked at how much television children watched before age 3 and then at ages 3 to 5," Zimmerman said. "We found that for children who watched a small amount of TV in the earlier years, there was co nsider able beneficial effect compared to children who watched a lot of TV."
I) For children aged 3 to 5, the effect was not as clear, Zimmerman said. "There were some beneficial effects of watching TV on reading, but no beneficial effects for math or vocabulary," he noted. "The worst pattern was to watch more than three hours of TV before age 3. Those kids had a significant disadvantage compared to the other kids." Parents should follow the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation, which is no TV for children under 2, Zimmerman said. "Personally, I feel the cutoff should be children under 3, because there is just not any good content for children under 3."
J) One expert believes that TV can have both positive and negative effects, but it all depends on what children are watching. "Content matters," said Deborah L. Line barger, an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania, who co-authored an accompanying editorial. "Educational content has been found to be related to performance on school readiness tests, higher grades when they are teen-agers, whereas, non-educational content tends to be associated with lower academic performance."
K) Another expert agrees. "TV watching takes up space that could be used by more useful things," said Dr. Christopher P. Lucas, a clinical coordinator at the Early Childhood Evaluation and Treatment Program at the New York University Child Study Center. "TV is not necessarily toxic, but is some-thing that has to be done in moderation; something that balances the other needs of the child for healthy development."
L) Lucas puts the responsibility for how much TV kids watch and what they watch squarely on parents. "The amount of TV watching certainly has a link with the reduced amount of time reading or doing homework," he said. "The key is the amount of control parents have in limiting the amount of access. Get the TV out of the bedroom; be aware of what is being watched; limit the amount of TV watching."
46. According to Borzekowski, children having chances to use a family computer are likely to acquire better results on the different tests.
47. The reports issued in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescents Medicine find that watching too much TV leads to poor performance in school.
48. Watching more than three hours of TV before age 3 has bad effect on kids.
49. According to the second report, the chance for one to acquire a college degree depends on the amount of his TV watching during childhood.
50. In Deborah L. Lingbarger's opinion, educational content is helpful for teenagers to get better results on school readiness tests.
51. The environment of family media greatly affects children's test scores according to the first report.
52. Borzekowski believes that TV's negative effect on children's marks may mainly lie in what children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it.
53. Lucas thinks parents should take the responsibility to supervise kids' TV watching.
54. According to the recommendation from American Academy of Pediatrics, children under 2 should watch no TV.
55. Hancox thinks earlier childhood TV watching affects one's acquiring a college degree most.
H)在第三份报告中，Frederick J.Zimmerman和来自华盛顿大学的Dimitri A.Christakis博士认为，对于幼儿来说，看电视会导致数学、阅读认知和阅读理解的分数降低。Zimmerman表示“我们研究了孩子在3岁以前和在3到5岁之间看电视所花的时间的数量，结果发现与花许多时间看电视的孩子相比，小时候很少看电视的孩子有相当大的优势。”
46.According to Borzekowski，children having chances to use a family computer are likely to acquire better re-suits on the different tests.Borzekowski发现能接触使用家用电脑的孩子各项测试成绩一般更好。
【解析】 D)。细节题。根据句中chancestouse afamily computer可将答案定位于D)段最后一句话。可是Borzekowski又说，可以使用家庭电脑的孩子比家中没有电脑的孩子更有可能在这些科目的测试中取得更高的分数.
47.The reports issued in the Archives of Pediatrics&Adolescents Medicine find that watching too much TV leads to poor perform ancein sch001.《儿科和青春期医学档案》杂志研究发现看电视时间太长会导致学习成绩差。
【解析】 A)。细节题。根据句中the Archives of Pediatrics& Adolescents Medicine可将答案定位于Al段后两句。目前，有三项新的研究发现，看电视时间太长会导致学习成绩下降，妨碍学习进步，甚至影响在大学的成绩。这三项研究报告刊载在7月份的《儿科和青春期医学档案》杂志上。
48.Watching more than three hours of TV before age 3 has bad effect on kids.
【解析】I)。细节题。根据句中more than three hours of TV before age 3可将答案定位于I)段第三四句话。最糟糕的便是在3岁之前每天看3个小时以上的电视。与其他孩子相比，他们会有较大的劣势。
49.According to the second report，the chance for one to acquire a college degree depends on the amount of his TV watching during childhood.
【解析】F)。归纳题。根据句中the chance for one to acquire a college degree可将答案定位于F)段。F段整段的中心意思就是少年期看电视越多越不容易获得大学学位，反之亦然。
50.In Deborah L.Lingbarger’s opinion，educational content is helpful for teenagers to get better results on school readiness tests.Deborah L.Ling barger认为(电视上的)教育性内容可以帮助青少年在入学预备考试中取得更好的成绩。
【解析】 J)。细节题。根据句中educational content可将答案定位于J)段末句。内容很重要。教育性的内容与入学预备考试的成绩有关，有助于青少年取得更好的成绩，而非教育性的内容则往往导致学习成绩下降。
51. environment of family media greatly affects children’s test Scorcs according to the first report.
【解析】C)。细节题。根据句中environment of family media可将答案定位于C)段末句。我们发现家庭媒体环境与孩子不同的测验分数的表现有密切的关系。
52.Borzekowski believes that TV’s negative effect on children’s marks may mainly lie in what children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it.
【解析】E)。细节题。根据句中TV’s negative effect可将答案定位于E)段，此段整段都在探讨电视负面效应的原因。其中一句尤为点题：Borzekowskibelieves that content and the lime the"IV is on may be the primary reasons for its negative effect.Borzekowski认为电视内容和观看的时间可能是导致电视机的负面影响的主要原因。What children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it是.content and the time的同类表述。
53•Lucas thinks parents should take the responsibility to supervise kids’TV watchin. Lucas认为父母有责任监督孩子看电视。
【解析】 L)。细节题。根据句中parents should take the responsibility可将答案定位于L)段首句。Lucas认为孩予看电视的时间和内容应该完全由父母负责监督。
54.According to the recommendation from American Academy of Peadialrics，children under 2 should watch TV.
【解析】 I)。细节题。根据句中Amcerican Academy of Peadiatrics和under2可将答案定位于I)段倒数第二句。Zimmerman表示家长应该听从美国小儿科学会的建议，不要让2岁以下的孩子看电视。
55.Hancox thinks earlier childhood TV watching affects one’s acquiring a college degree most.
【解析】 G)。细节题。根据句中earlier childhood和college degree可将答案定位于G)段第二句。一项有趣的发现是，虽然少年时期看电视很可能会导致没有毕业就离开学校，但是对能否取得学位影响最大的却是童年时期看电视。