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2019年英语四级阅读段落匹配题——濒危民族

2019-01-09 10:17 来源:文都网校 阅读()

  2018年下半年英语四级考试顺利结束了,备考2019年英语四六级该提上日程了,备考这段时间可以跟小编一起做一些英语四级阅读的练习,然后参考答案,逐渐提高准确率,下面是阅读中段落匹配题部分的练习题,一起做一下吧!

  Endangered Peoples

  A) Today, it is not distance, but culture that separates the peoples of the world. The central question of our time may be how to deal with cultural differences. So begins the book, Endangered Peoples, by Art Davidson. It is an attempt to provide understanding of the issues affecting the world's native peoples. This book tells the stories of 21 tribes, cultures, and cultural areas that are struggling to survive. It tells each story through the voice of a member of the tribe .Mr. Davidson recorded their words. Art Wolfe and John Isaac took pictures of them. The organization called the Sierra Club published the book.

  B) The native groups live far apart in North America or South America, Africa or Asia. Yet their situations are similar. They are fighting the march of progress in an effort to keep themselves and their cultures alive. Some of them follow ancient ways most of the time. Some follow modern ways most of the time. They have one foot in ancient world and one foot in modern world. They hope to continue to balance between these two worlds. Yet the pressures to forget their traditions and join the modern world may be too great.

  C) Rigoberta Menchu of Guatemala, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1992, offers her thoughts in the beginning of the book Endangered Peoples. She notes that many people claim that native people are like stories from the past. They are ruins that have died. She disagrees strongly. She says native communities are not remains of the past. They have a future, and they have much wisdom and richness to offer the rest of the world.

  D) Art Davidson traveled thousands of miles around the world while working on the book. He talked to many people to gather their thoughts and feelings. Mr. Davidson notes that their desires are the same. People want to remain themselves~ he says. They want to raise their children the way they were raised. They want their children to speak their mother tongue, their own language. They want them to have their parents' values and customs. Mr. Davidson says the people's cries are the same: "Does our culture have to die? Do we have to disappear as a people?"

  E) Art Davidson lived for more than 25 years among native people in the American state of Alaska. He says his interest in native peoples began his boyhood when he found an ancient stone arrowhead. The arrowhead was used as a weapon to hunt food. The hunter was an American Indian, long dead. Mr. Davidson realized then that Indians had lived in the state of Colorado, right where he was standing. And it was then, he says, that he first wondered: "Where are they? Where did they go? "He found answers to his early question. Many of the native peoples had disappeared. They were forced off their lands. Or they were killed in battle. Or they died from diseases brought by new settlers. Other native peoples remained, but they had to fight to survive the pressures of the modern world.

  F) The Gwich'in are an example of the survivors. They have lived in what is now Alaska and Canada for 10,000 years. Now about 5,000 Gwich'in remain. They are mainly hunters. They hunt the caribou, a large deer with big horns that travels across the huge spaces of the far north. For centuries, they have used all parts of the caribou: the meat for food, the skins for clothes, the bones for tools. Hunting caribou is the way of life of the Gwich'in.

  G) One Gwich'in told Art Davidson of memories from his childhood. It was a time when the tribe lived quietly in its own corner of the world. He spoke to Mr. Davidson in these words: "As long as I can remember, someone would sit by a fire on the hilltop every spring and autumn. His job was to look for caribou. If he saw a caribou, he would wave his arms or he would make his fire to give off more smoke. Then the village would come to life! People ran up to the hilltop. The tribes seemed to be at its best at these gatherings. We were all filled with happiness and sharing!"

  H) About ten years ago, the modern world invaded the quiet world of the Gwich' in. Oil companies wanted to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Preserve. This area was the please where the caribou gave birth to their young. The Gwich'in feared the caribou would disappear. One Gwich' in woman describes the situation in these words: "Oil development threatens the caribou. If the caribou are threatened, then the people are threatened. Oil company official and American lawmakers do not seem to understand. They do not come into our homes and share our food. They have never tried to understand the feeling expressed in our songs and our prayers. They have not seen the old people cry. Our elders have seen parts of our culture destroyed. They worry that our people may disappear forever."

  I) A scientist with a British oil company dismisses (驳回,打消) the fears of the Gwich'in. He also says they have no choice. They will have to change. The Gwich' in, however, are resisting. They took legal action to stop the oil companies. But they won only a temporary ban on oil development in the Arctic National Wildlife Preserve. Pressures continue on other native people, as Art Davidson describes in his book. The pressures come from expanding populations, dam projects that flood tribal lands, and political and economic conflicts threaten the culture, lands, and lives of such groups as the Quechua of Peru, the Malagasy of Madagascar and the Ainu of Japan.

  J) The organization called Cultural Survival has been in existence for 22 years. It tries to protect the rights and cultures of peoples throughout the world. It has about 12,000 members. And it receives help from a large number of students who work without pay. Theodore MacDonald is director of the Cultural Survival Research Center. He says the organization has three main jobs. It does research and publishes information. It works with native people directly. And it creates markets for goods produced by native communities.

  K) Late last year, Cultural Survival published a book called State of the Peoples: a Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger. The book contains reports from researchers who work for Cultural Survival, from experts on native peoples, and from native peoples themselves. The book describes the conditions of different native and minority groups. It includes longer reports about several threatened societies, including the Penan of Malaysia and the Anishina be of North American. And it provides the names of organizations similar to Cultural Survival for activists, researchers and the press.

  L) David May bury-Lewis started the Cultural Survival organization. Mr. May bury-Lewis believes powerful groups rob native peoples of their lives, lands, or resources. About 6,000 groups are left in the world. A native group is one that has its own langue. It has a long-term link to a homeland. And it has governed itself. Theodore MacDonald says Cultural Survival works to protect the rights of groups, not just individual people. He says the organization would like to develop a system of early warnings when these rights are threatened .Mr. MacDonald notes that conflicts between different groups within a country have been going on forever and will continue. Such conflicts, he says, cannot be prevented. But they do not have to become violent. What Cultural Survival wants is to help set up methods that lead to peaceful negotiations of traditional differences. These methods, he says, are a lot less costly than war.

  46. Rigoberta Menchu, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1992, writes preface for the book Endangered Peoples.

  47. The book Endangered Peoples contents not only words, but also pictures.

  48. Art Davidson's initial interest in native people was aroused by an ancient stone arrowhead he found in his childhood, which was once used by an American Indian hunter.

  49. The native groups are trying very hard to balance between the ancient world and the modern world.

  50. By talking with them, Art Davidson finds that the native people throughout the world desire to remain themselves.

  51. Most of the Gwich'in are hunters, who live on hunting caribou.

  52. Cultural Survival is an organization which aims at protecting the rights and cultures of peoples throughout the world.

  53. According to Theodore MacDonald, the Cultural Survival organization .would like to develop a system of early warnings when a society's rights are to be violated.

  54. The book State of the Peoples: a Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger describes the conditions of different native and minority groups.

  55. The Gwich' in tried to stop oil companies from drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Preserve for fear that it should drive the caribou away

  Section B

  A)现在,是文化而非距离将世界各民族分隔开。我们时代的中心问题也许是怎样对待文化差异。让我们从Art Davidson的著作《濒危民族》说起。该书试图帮助人们了解影响世界土著民族的诸多问题。本书讲述了为了生存而苦苦挣扎的21个部落、不同的文化和文化区的故事。每个故事都以部落成员的口吻叙述。【47】Davidson先生记录了他们的述说,Art Wolfe 和Jonhn Isaac拍摄照片,一个名为塞拉俱乐部的组织出版了这本书。

  B)土著民族分布在北美或南美,非洲或亚洲,相距甚远。然而,他们所处的情况却相差无几。为了生存,为了文化的传承,他们奋力反抗前进的步伐。很多时候,他们中有些人遵循古老的生活方式,也有些人接受现代方式。【49】他们处在古代世界和现代世界之间。他们希望继续保持这两个世界的平衡。但是。抛弃传统、融入现代世界的压力非常大。

  C)【46】危地马拉的Rigoberta Menchu女士是1992年诺贝尔和平奖的得主。她在《濒危民族》这本书的序言中提出了自己的观点。她指出,很多人认为土著民族就像是过去的故事,已遭破坏并消亡。她强烈反对这种观点。她认为土著民族并非过去岁月的残留。他们有未来,他们能为世界其他民族贡献自己很多的智慧和财富。

  D)Art Davidson撰写《濒危民族》时,行走了数千英里路,游览了世界各地。他和各种人交谈,了解他们的思想和情感。【50】Davidson先生发现他们有着共同的愿望。他说,人们希望他们的民族可以延续。他们希望按照父母养育自己的方式养育孩子;他们希望孩子会讲母语——他们本民族的语言;他们希望孩子可以继承父辈们的价值观和习俗。Davidson先生指出,各民族的呼声是相同的:“我们的文化必须消亡吗?我们的民族必须消失吗?”

  E)【48】Are Davidson在美国阿拉斯加州的土著民族中生活了25年多。他说小时候他发现过一个非常古老的石制箭头,从那时起,就激起了他对土著民族的兴趣。这个石箭头是被用作武器来猎食的。猎人是一位早已作古的美洲印第安人。接着,Davidson先生意识到当时的印第安人就生活在科罗拉多州, 他正站着的那片地方。他说,那时他第一次想知道:“他们在哪里?他们又去了何方?”他找到了这些问题的答案。许多土著民族已经消失。他们被迫远走他乡。或者,他们已经战亡。又或者他们死于新来的移民携带的疾病。其他土著民族虽然存活下来了,但是他们为了生存必须与现代世界的压力作斗争。

  F)哥威迅人就是存活下来的一个例证。他们在现在的阿拉斯加和加拿大居住已有10000年。l511现在,哥威迅族的人口大概有5000,主要以狩猎为生。他们捕猎驯鹿,这种鹿体型较大,长着一对巨大的角,出没于最北边的广阔地区。数百年来,他们对驯鹿身上的各部分都加以利用:肉用作食物,皮用来做衣服,骨头用来制作工具。狩猎驯鹿就是哥威迅人的生活方式。

  G)一个哥威迅人向Art Davidson诉说了他童年以来的记忆。当时,部落还默默地生活在世界上属于他们自己的角落。他这样对Davidson先生说:“在我的记忆中,每个春秋都有人坐在山顶的火堆旁。他的工作就是寻找驯鹿。如果他看到了驯鹿,就挥舞手臂。或者生火,用烟作信号。然后,村民们就会活跃起来。他们跑向山顶。这时候,部落里的人是最高兴的。我们都沉浸在幸福和分享的喜悦中。”

  H)大约十年前,现代世界打破了哥威迅人的平静生活。【55】石油企业想在北极国家野生动物保护区勘探 石油。这片区域是驯鹿繁殖下一代的她方。哥威迅人担心驯鹿会消失。一位哥威迅妇女这样描述这种 情形:“石油勘探对驯鹿造成威胁。如果驯鹿受到威胁,那么人也将受到威胁。石油企业的管理者和美 国的立法者似乎并不理解这点。他们不来我们的家里,不和我们分享食物。他们从未试图了解我们的 民谣和祈祷中所要传达的感情。他们看不到祖辈们的眼泪。我们的父辈见证了我们的某些文化被摧毁。他们担心,我们的民族也许会永远消失。”

  I) 英国石油公司的一位科学家打消了哥威迅人的担忧。他还指出他们没有选择,他们必须得改变。然而,哥威迅人拒绝这种改变。他们借助法律手段,阻止石油公司的开采。但是,国家只是禁止在北极国家野生动物保护区钻探石油,他们的胜利只是短暂性的。其他土著民族仍旧面临着这种压力,就像Art Davidson在书中描写的那样。这种压力来自日益增多的人口、淹没族地的水坝工程和政治经济冲突。秘鲁的盖丘亚族、马达加斯加的马达加斯加人和日本的阿伊努人,他们的文化、领土和生活都面临着政治经济冲突的威胁。

  J)【52】文化拯救协会这一组织成立22年了。它试图保护世界各民族的权利和文化,拥有大约l2,000名成员。很多学生都是它的义工。Theodore MacDonald是文化拯救研究中心的董事。他指出该组织有三项主要工作:开展调研,披露信息;直接与土著民族接触;为土著民族的产品开拓市场。

  K)去年年底,文化拯救协会出版了一本书,名为《民族现状:世界濒危民族的人权报告》。本书内容包括文化拯救协会调研人员和该领域其他专家的报告,也包括土著人自己的述说。【54】该书描写了不同土著民族和少数民族的生存现状。其中,对几个濒危民族,包括马来西亚的本南族和北美的安尼施纳比族做了详尽的介绍,并为对这方面有浓厚兴趣的人、研究人员和新闻媒体介绍了几大组织机构,其性质类似于文化拯救协会。

  L)David May bury-Lewis创办了文化拯救协会。May bury-Lewis先生认为,其他更强大的民族威胁土著居民的生命,掠夺他们的土地和资源。世界上大约有6,000个民族。土著民族拥有自己的语言,长期居于某地,自我管辖。1531 Theodore MacDonaM指出文化拯裁协会旨在保护各民族的权利,并不是只保护个人权利。他说,该组织欲建立一个早期预警系统,当这些农权利遭到威胁对向人们提砖警告。MacDonald先生认为,国家内部各民族之间的冲突由来已久,并还将继续。这种冲突无法阻止,但并不一定要演变成暴力。文化拯救协会正致力于寻找方法,以和平协商方对待传统文化差异。他说,研究这些方法的代价比战争要低得多。

  46. Rigoberta Menchu, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1992, writes preface for the book Endangered Peoples. 1992年诺贝尔和平奖的得主Rigoberta Menchu女士为《濒危民族》这本书作序。

  【解析】 C)。细节题。根据句中关键词Rgoberta Menchu可定位至c)段首句。危地马拉的Rigoberta Menchu女士是1992年诺贝尔和平奖的得主。她在《濒危民族》这本书的序言中提出了自己的观点。由此可见 Rigoberta Menchu女士为《濒危民族》这本书作序。

  47. The book Endangered Peoples contents not only words, but also pictures.

  《濒危民族》这本书不仅包括文字,还包括图片

  【解析】 A)。细节题。本题着眼点在The book Endangered Peoples,因此锁定有关这本书的介绍信息, 可定位至首段。该段末句是:Davidson先生记录了他们的述说,Art Wolfe和John Isaac拍摄照片,一个名为塞拉俱乐部的组织出版了这本书。由此可知,这本书不仅有文字而且还有图片。

  48. Art Davidson's initial interest in native people was aroused by an ancient stone arrowhead he found in his child- hood, which was once used by an American Indian hunter.Art Davidson最初开始对土著民族感兴趣,源自小时候见到的一个美洲印第安猎人用过的石制箭头。

  【解析】E)。细节题。根据句中关键词in the interesting native people和an ancient stone arrowhead可定位至E)段。他说小时候他发现过一个非常古老的石制箭头,从那时起,就激起了他对土著民族的兴趣。这 个石箭头是被用作武器来猎食的。猎人是一位早已作古的美洲印第安人。

  49. The native groups are trying very hard to balance between the ancient world and the modem world.

  土著民族艰难地尝试在古今世界之间寻求平衡。

  【解析】 B)。细节题。根据句中关键词the native groups和balance between the ancient world and the mod- em world可定位至B)段后三句。他们处在古代世界和现代世界之间。他们希望继续保持这两个世界的平衡。但是,抛弃传统、融入现代世界的压力非常大。

  50. By talking with them, Art Davidson finds that the native people throughout the world desire to remain themselves.

  通过交谈,Art Davidson得知所有的土著居民都希望自己的民族得以存续。

  【解析】D)。细节题。根据句中关键词the native people,desire和remain themselves可定位至D)段。 Davidson先生发现他们有着共同的愿望。他说,人们希望他们的民族可以延续。

  51. Most of the Gwich'in are hunters, who live on hunting caribou.

  哥威迅族人绝大部分是猎人,以狩猎驯鹿为生。

  【解析】F)。细节题。根据句中关键词the Gwich in和hunting caribou可定位至F)段。与句中意思一致的两句话是:现在,哥威迅族的人口大概有5000,主要以狩猎为生。狩猎驯鹿就是哥威迅人的生活方式。

  52. Cultural Survival is an organization which aims at protecting the rights and cultures of peoples throughout the world.文化拯救协会组织旨在保护世界各民族的权利和文化。

  【解析】J)。细节题。根据句中关键词Cultural Survival和protecting the rights and cultures of peoples可定位至J)段的前两句。文化拯救协会这一组织已成立22年了。它试图保护世界各民族的权利和文化。

  53. According to Theodore MacDonald, the Cultural Survival organization would like to develop a system of early warnings when a society's rights are to be violated.

  Theodore MacDonald 称:文化拯救协会欲建立一个早期预警系统

  【解析】L)。细节题。根据句中关键词Theodore MacDonal和a system ofearly warnings可定位至末段中间部分。Theodore MacDonald指出文化拯救协会旨在保护各民族的权利,并不是只保护个人权利。他说,该组织欲建立一个早期预警系统,当这些权利遭到威胁时向人们提出警告。

  54. The book State of the Peoples: a Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger describes the conditions of different native and minority groups. 《世界濒危民族的人权报告》这本书描述的生存现状。

  【解析】K)。细节题。根据句中关键词the book a Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger可定位至K)段。该段对这本书进行了详细介绍,其中包括描述内容,即不同土著民族和少数民族的生存现状。

  55. The Gwich' in tried to stop oil companies from drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Preserve for fear that

  it should drive the caribou away.

  哥威迅族人阻止石油公司在北极国家野生动物保护区勘探石油,因为担心这样会把驯鹿吓跑。

  【解析】 H)。细节题。根据句中关键词stop oil companies from drillin9和drive the caribou away可定位至 H)段二至四句。石油企业想在北极国家野生动物保护区勘探石油。这片区域是驯鹿繁殖下一代的地方。 哥威迅人担心驯鹿会消失。

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