An Apple for the Teacher
American schoolchildren occasionally present anapple to the teacher. Obviously the custom containsan element of bribery 1 — you offer sweet fruit toauthority figures to “sweeten” 2 their disposition3. In school children's case, the apple is offered tomake their grades more favorable. Therefore, theapple has more or less acquired a corrosive4 reputation and maybe for this reason, in slangEnglish “to applepolish” means“to flatter or fawn” and an applepolisher is a flatterer.
But the custom might also be explained as a fair payment for the teacher's instruction. In theearly days of public education, school teachers were not always salaried. Often they would bepaid in goods and services, offered by either the school, or the pupils or the parents. . ..Therefore, the occasional gift of an apple for the teacher in today's classroom should be awelcome reminder of the era when education was one -to-one and when teaching meantenlightening the students rather than identifying their rankings.
Caps and Gowns
For students, the most exciting moment may be the graduation ceremony 5: parents, relativesand friends are invited to the ceremony; all the graduates are wearing black square flat capsand gowns. They all await the president to announce in the end,“Now, please move yourtassels from right to left. ”
The caps and gowns worn by high school and college graduates today are survivors of theeveryday dress worn by members of the academic community in medieval Europe. Themajority of scholars in the Middle Ages6 were churchmen, or soon to become so, and theirdress was often strictly regulated by the universities where they taught and studied. Thestandard clerical dress throughout Europe was the long black cope. The original preferencefor black was changed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, as such colors as red, violetand purple came into fashion; but by the Renaissance black was back, as the color blacksymbolized simple and plain, or austere way of life in the sixteenth century. With fewexceptions, modern universities keep that ceremonial austerity.
The origin of the square flat cap, or mortarboard7 , is obscure, though it probably derives fromthe medieval biretta . Such a tufted square cap is considered the badge of the 024 mastership, and is later adopted by undergraduates and schoolboys. The term mortarboard does notappear in English until the 1850 s. The tassel that graduates transfer from one side to anotheras a signal of their elevation is an outgrowth of the medieval tuft. The tuft still appears onthe modern biretta, worn by bishops throughout the Church of Rome .
Ⅰ. True o r false :
1. Nowadays, American pupils always offer an apple to the teacher in order to get a bettergrade.
2. In the early days of public education, schoolteachers were paid in money.
3. In America, the caps and gowns are only adopted by college graduates during graduationceremonies.
4. Before the Renaissance, the standard clerical dress was black.
5. The biretta was considered the mark of scholarship.
6. That the graduates move the tassel from one side to the other is a signal of elevation.
Ⅱ. Questions :
1. According to the passage, when you say somebody is an apple polisher, what do you reallymean by saying that?
2. For students, when is the most exciting moment?
3. After graduation, which side should you put your tassel, right or left?
Ⅰ. 1. T 2. F 3 . F 4 . F 5. T 6. T
Ⅱ. 1. It really means that he is flattering orfawning some figures.
2. For students, the most exciting moment is thegraduation ceremony, especially the moment whenthe president makes the announcement.
3. After graduation, the tassel should be put to theleft side.
美国的学童经常会送苹果给老师。很明显, 这个习惯做法有点行贿的意味——— 给当权 者一些甜头来软化他们的态度。对学童来说, 他们送老师苹果只是为了得到更令人满意的 成绩。为此, 苹果的荣誉多少受到些损害, 而且可能就是这个缘故, 英语俚语“to applepolish”的意思就是“ 阿谀奉承, 溜须拍马”, 而“ applepolisher”则指“ 马屁精”。 这一习惯做法同样可以看作是对老师授课的一种合理报答。公立教育早期, 学校教师 并不总是拿薪水的。通常情况下, 他们得到的报酬是学校、学生或学生家长提供的实物或服务。因此, 在今天的教室里时常出现的送老师苹果的现象应该算是对那个年代的一种 美好回忆。那时的教育是一对一式的, 而且那时的教学是为了使学生受到教育, 而不是为 了区分他们的社会地位。
对学生而言, 最激动人心的时刻莫过于毕业典礼。父母及亲朋好友都被邀请来参加典 礼。所有的毕业生都头戴黑色的方平帽, 身穿黑长袍。他们等待着校长在最后一刻宣布: “ 现在, 请将你的流苏从右边移到左边。” 今天的高中生和大学生戴的学士帽, 穿的学士服是由中世纪欧洲学院里学者们的日常 着装演变而来的。中世纪时, 大多数的学者要么是牧师, 要么将要成为牧师; 他们的着装经 常受到他们任教或学习的大学的严格控制。在整个欧洲, 标准的牧师服都是黑色的长袍。 13 和14 世纪的时候, 人们最初偏爱黑色的状况得到了改变, 诸如红色、紫罗兰色和紫色这 样的颜色开始流行起来。但是到了文艺复兴时期, 黑色又流行回来, 因为黑色代表了简约 朴素和16 世纪严谨的苦修方式。现代大学都少有例外地保留了那种肃穆简朴的仪式。方平帽或者学士帽的起源不甚了了, 不过这很可能是从中世纪的法冠演变而来。这种 植绒的方帽被看作是学位的象征, 后来被大学本科生和高中生采用。学士帽这个术语直到 19 世纪50 年代才传到英国。毕业生们将其从一边移到另一边, 作为一种晋级标志的流苏 其实是中世纪时的帽穗的派生。现代罗马教会的大主教们戴的法冠上仍保留着这种穗子。