Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect,since if competition is important to Ihe parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
One place where children soak up A-characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the "win at all costs" moral standard and measure their successby sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than theirB-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences:remember that Pheidippides,the firstmarathon runner,dropped dead seconds after saying:"Rejoice,we conquer!"
By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirabl that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs A types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.
If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions.especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistaketo choose our doctors exclusively from A-type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.
1.Apart from the effect of the environment, personality is largely____________________.
2.A-type individuals are usually competitive, but__________________can lead to serious consequences.
3.The author doubts about the virtue of__________________________at schools because some students are bound to fail.
4.For schools, the top management is to fit a child's personality to______________________.
5.The selection of medical professionals is currently based on________________________.
[定位]根据题干中的the effect of the environment，personality，largely查找到首段。
解析：题干是对原文首段的近义改写，the effect of the environment对应原文中的第2句话，largely为原文第1句中a large extent的同义表达，所以空白处应填A inherent。
2.[being too keen to win]
解析：空白处缺少主语，原文倒数第2句中的competitive A-types对应题干的前半句，题干lead to serious consequences是最后一句中can have dangerous consequences的同义替换，所以being too keen to win为答案。
3.[competition by examination]
[定位]根据题干中的doubts about,the virtue和fail查找到第3段末句。
解析：本句说的是，作者质疑考试这种竞争方式，因为对一些孩子而言。明知是短处、肯定会失败而做无谓的竞争，这种竞争是无益的。doubts about和the virtue对应原文中的questionable和the merits，而题目中because从句是对原文in the certain knowledge of failure的近义改写，所以competition by examination为答案。
4.[his possible future employment]
[定位]根据题干中的top management，a child's personality查找到第4段第2、3句。
5.[good grades in chemistry/academic achievements]
解析：原文说希望今后选拔医务人员时应更关注候选人的情感，比如是否敏感，是否有同情心，而不是一味地看成绩(good grades in chemistry)。由此可得知，现在的选拔制度注重的是成绩。本题答案也可归纳为academic achievements。