四六级

2019年12月英语四级全套模拟试卷(第27套)

时间:2019-11-06 13:49:20 来源:文都网校 分享:

  距离2019年下半年英语四六级考试已不足百天了,备考时间紧迫,为帮助各位考生,文都网校给大家准备了四级模拟题,下面是四级模拟试卷全套之一,赶紧一起看起来吧!

  英语四级模拟试卷

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)

  Directions:There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

   Ascientist who does research in economic psychology and who wants to predict the way in which consumers will spend their money must study consumer behavior. He must obtain data both on resources of consumers and on the motives that tend to encourage or discourage money spending.

  If an economist as asked which of three groups borrow most—people with rising incomes, stable incomes, or declining incomes—he would probably answer:those with declining incomes. Actually, in the years 1947—1950, the answer was: people with rising incomes. People with declining incomes were next and people with stable incomes borrowed the least. This shows us that traditional assumptions about earning and spending are not always reliable. Another traditional assumption is that if people who have money expect prices to go up, they will hasten to buy. If they expect prices to go down, they will postpone buying. But research surveys have shown that this is not always true. The expectations of price increase may not stimulate buying. One typical attitude was expressed by the wife of a mechanic in an interview at a time of rising prices. “In a few months,” she said, “we’ll have to pay more for meat and milk; we’ll have less to spend on other things.” Her family had been planning to buy a new car but they postponed this purchase. Furthermore, the rise in prices that has already taken place may be resented and buyer’s resistance may be evoked.

  The investigations mentioned above were carried out in America. Investigations conducted at the same time in Great Britain, however, yielded results that were more in agreement with traditional assumptions about saving and spending patterns. The condition most conductive to spending appears to be price stability. If prices have been stable and people consider that they are reasonable, they are likely to buy. Thus, it appears that the common business policy of maintaining stable prices is based on a correct understanding of consumer psychology. 

  21.If a scientist wants to study consumer behavior, what must he do? 

  A) He must predict the way in which consumers will spend their money. 

  B) He must do scientific research.

  C) He must know background of customers.

  D) He must do research and learn the resources and motives of customers. 

  22.Which of the following groups borrow money most according to traditional assumption?

  A) People with rising incomes. 

  B) People with stable incomes. 

  C) People with declining incomes.

  D) None of the above.

  23.Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?

  A) Traditional assumptions about earning and spending are not always reliable.

  B) The condition that most helps to produce spending appears to be price rising. 

  C) Maintaining stable prices is a common business policy.

  D) The results of the investigation in America were not the same as those in Great Britain.

  24.The research survey in America have showed that when the prices rise, ____.

  A) people will hasten to buy 

  B) people will stop buying

  C) people will postpone their purchase 

  D) people will buy more than they can use

  25.The saving and spending patterns in America are ____ those at the same time in Britain. 

  A) different from B) much better than C) the same asD) much worse than

  Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  In the past, American families tended to be quite large. Parents raising five or more children were common. Over the years, the size of the family has decreased. One reason for this is an increase in the cost of living. On the average, children attend schools for more years than they used to, making them financially dependent on their families longer. Moreover, children nowadays are better dressed and have more money to spend on entertainment. The parents usually take the responsibility for all the expenses. Meanwhile, families are less close than they used to be. More and more American mothers work away from home. The breakup of the family occurs when the parents divorce. A lot of children in the U. S. live part of their young lives with only one parent. Broken families usually result in problems for children and parents alike. Children blame themselves when their parents separate. They grow up feeling unsettled as they are moved back and forth between parents. Usually one parent is responsible for raising the children. These single parents must care for the children’s emotional and psychological needs while also supporting them financially. This is very demanding and leaves very little time for the parent’s own personal interests. Single parents often marry other single parents. In this type of family, unrelated children are forced to develop brother or sister relationship. The situations of many American families today are not good. However, recent signs indicate that things are getting better. The divorce rate is declining. The rate of childbirth is rising. Perhaps Americans have learned how important families are.

  26.In the past, American families tended to be ____. 

  A) quite small B) medium sized C) quite large D) small

  27. To parents who take the responsibility for children’s expenses, the cost of living increases because ____.

  A) children attend school for more years B) children are better dressed

  C) children spend more money on entertainment D) all of the above

  28.What problems would broken families bring to both children and parents?

  A) Children grow up feeling unsettled and parents didn’t pay much attention to children.

  B) Children grow up feeling free and one parent is responsible for raising the children.

  C) Children are moved back and forth between parents and the single parent is busy working to make money to support himself/herself.

  D) Children grow up feeling unsettled, and the parents have little time for his/her own interests because one parent is too busy taking care of children.

  29.According to the author, the situations of American families in the future may ____.

  A) become worse C) get better

  B) remain the same D) keep unchanged 

  30.The title of the article might be ____. 

  A) American Children C) American Mother 

  B) American Families D) American Parents

  Questions 31 to 35 are

  based on the following passage:

  Albert Schweitzer was born in 1875 in Alsace. At that time, it was a part of Germany. His generous spirit was first awakened through his training as a Lutheran minister. Besides gaining a reputation as a preacher, he also became respected for his ability to play the organ. He was a man of many talents. His concern for other people turned his attention to medicine. He had also acquired doctoral degrees in philosophy and music. His wife took an interest in medicine too and became a nurse. Many people thought that he should remain and lecture in Europe to have a strong impact on Western civilization. Though he listened to their suggestions, he ultimately decided to follow his own conscience. This led him to Africa. Albert had felt that all men should accept the responsibility of helping others. He felt particularly concerned for black Africans who had been exploited by white men. He earned the money he needed by performing on the organ and by lecturing. With this money he bought equipment and opened a hospital in Africa. He was a man of great strength who faced great problems with courage. The threat of war, the reality of imprisonment during World War, one as a German citizen, and the unbearable heat in Africa did not deter him at all. He believed that man could overcome these obstacles if he had a sense of idealism. He died in 1965. 

  31.Albert Schweitzer was ____. 

  A) a pianist C) a humanitarian 

  B) an African D) a nurse 

  32.He had talents for ____.

  A) training his wife to be a nurse, giving concert and lecturing 

  B) giving medical care, lecturing, playing the organ

  C) taking care of sick people, fighting as a soldier, lecturing 

  D) giving concert, making equipment, helping others

  33.In spite of people’s suggestions, Albert decided to go to Africa ____.

  A) because he was born there

  B) because he wanted to help others particularly black Africans who had been exploited by white men

  C) because he wanted to give a concert to African people 

  D) because he wanted to make money there

  34.Why did the author think he was a man of great strength? 

  A) He always faced great problems with courage.

  B) The threat of war and the reality of imprisonment during World War didn’t discourage him.

  C) The unbearable heat in Africa did not deter him at all.

  D) All of the above.

  35.Albert Schweitzer lived to be ____.

  A) 70 years old C) 90 years old

  B) 80 years old D) 100 years old

  Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

  Social change is more likely to occur in societies where there is a mixture of different kinds of people than in societies where people aresimilar in many ways. The simple reason for this is that there are more different ways of looking at things present in the first kind of society. There are more ideas, more disagreements in interest, and more groups and organizations with different beliefs. In addition, there is usually a greater worldly interest and greater tolerance in mixed societies. All these factors tend to promote social change by opening more areas of life to decision. In a society where people are quite similar in many ways, there are fewer occasions for people to see the need or the opportunity for change because everything seems to be the same. And although conditions may not be satisfactory, they are atleast customary and undisputed.

  Within a society, social change is also likely to occur more frequently and more readily in the material aspects of the culture than in the nonmaterial, for example, in technology rather than in values; in what has been learned later in life rather than what was learned early; in the less basic and less emotional aspects of society than in their opposites; in the simple elements rather than in the complex ones; in form rather than in substance; and in elements that are acceptable to the culture rather than in strange elements. 

  Furthermore, social change is easier if it is gradual. For example, it comes more readily in human relations on a continuous scale rather than one with sharp dichotomies ( 一分为二). This is one reason why change has not come more quickly to Black Americans as compared to other American minorities, because of the sharp difference in appearance between them and their white counterparts. 

  36.What kind of society tends to promote social changes? 

  A) A society where people are similar in many ways. 

  B) A society where there are only white people. 

  C) A society where there are only black people.

  D) A society where there is a mixture of different kinds of people. 

  37.In a mixed society, there may be disagreement in ____.

  A) ideas C) beliefs

   B) interests D) all of the above

  38.Which of the following is not true, according to the passage?

  A) Social change is more likely to occur in the material aspect of society.

  B) Social change is less likely to occur in what people learned when they were old. 

  C) Disagreement with and argument about conditions tend to promote social change.

  D) Social change tends to meet with more difficulty in basic and emotional aspects of society. 

  39.Social change is less likely to occur in a society where people are quite similar in many ways because ____.

  A) people there are easy to please

  B) people there are less argumentary

  C) people there have got so accustomed to their conditions that they seldom think it necessary to change

  D) people there have same needs that can be satisfied without much difficulty 

  40.The passage is mainly discussing ____. 

  A) two different societies

  B) certain factors that determine the case with which social change oc curs

  C) the necessity of social change 

  D) the significance of social change

  Part Ⅲ Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes)

  Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A),B), C) and D). Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. 

  41.The Johnsons ____ the house before they decided to buy it. 

  A) looked out C) looked after 

  B) looked over D) looked on

  42. ____ bricks, workers press clay into blocks and bake them to the requisite hardness in a kiln. 

  A) Made C) Being made 

  B) To make D) The making of

  43.I’m sorry my mother didn’t want to go to the department store with me. ____ willing to go, I would have bought her a sweater. 

  A) Was she C) Had she been 

  B) Being D) She has been

  44. It was during the 1920’s ____ the friendship between Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

  A) when C) before 

  B) that D) after

  45.____ dwell on her past.

  A) Little need she C) Little she needed

  B) Little did she need D) Little she did need

  46.Mr Brown is a ____ old man and all his neighbours are ____ to him.

  A) respectful…respectable C) respectable…respectful 

  B) respectable…respective D) respective…respectable

  47.At the moment each of the girls was too busy thinking about ____own personal safety to care much about the luggage.

  A) their C) her 

  B) our D) your

  48. ____ on a clear day far from the city crowds, the mountains give him a sense of infinite peace. 

  A) Walking C) If walking

  B) When one is walking D) When walking 

  49.The ice melted ____ at this temperature. 

  A) very fastly C) fastly 

  B) most fastly D) fast

  50.I remember ____ for the job, but I forget the exact amount. 

  A) to be paid C) to get paid

  B) being paid D) being received pay

  51.David’s mother seldom does her homework on Sunday.____. 

  A) So does my mother. C) My mother isn’t, either. 

  B) Nor does my mother. D) My mother doesn’t,too. 

  52. ____ he found goodness, he praised it. 

  A) However C) Because 

  B) As D) Wherever 

  53.He wondered ____.

  A) what would his wife’s reaction be B) how would be his wife’s reaction 

  C) what will be his wife’s reaction D) what his wife’s reaction would be

  54.Children never want to go to bed at the proper time. They always want to ____ late. 

  A) take up C) stay up 

  B) stand up D) set up

  55.John read the letter ____ he went along. 

  A) when C) at 

  B) as D) for

  56.He has to make a living by himself because he doesn’t have parents to ____.

  A) keep on C) rely on 

  B) depend with D) go to

  57.Let’s go to the movie tonight, ____ ? 

  A) are we C) let us 

  B) shall we D) do we

  58.He never goes to the party because he always feels ill ____ there.

  A) at the ease C) at an ease 

  B) at his ease D) at ease

  59.This dress used to be very popular, but now it is out of ____. 

  A) question C) date 

  B) order D) place

  60. ____ a fine day, I decided to go for an outing. 

  A) Being C) It being 

  B) Having been D) How

  61.Since you are feeling uncomfortable, you ____. 

  A) had better going to see a doctor 

  B) must go to see a doctor

  C) would rather go to see a doctor 

  D) might as well go to see a doctor 

  62.I desired nothing but ____ home. 

  A) go C) going 

  B) to go D) went

  63.I don’t want to ____ you in if you are what you say. 

  A) run C) make 

  B) catch D) take

  64.People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their cars, and this ____ creates further problems.

  A) after all C) in case 

  B) in turn D) in time

  65.It is said that those old houses are being pulled down to ____new office blocks.

  A) provide for C) make room for 

  B) supply D) improve

  66.This singer is always very ____ to the reaction of the audience when she gives a performance. 

  A) sentimental C) positive 

  B) sensible D) sensitive

  67.He was unable to ____ to the group what he meant. 

  A) get in C) get along 

  B) get across D) get off

  68.It was a horrible ride through pouring rain. ____, he had a puncture and for the last hour had to push the bicycle. 

  A) To make matters worse C) Even though 

  B) Actually D) As a matter of fact

  69.With the winter here you can ____ these skirts till you need them again next summer.

  A) do away with C) get rid of 

  B) put away D) give away

  70. ____ I like the colour of the hat, I do not like its shape. 

  A) While C) When 

  B) If D) Because  

  Part Ⅳ Translation from English into Chinese (15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, there are five items which you should translate into Chinese, each item consisting of one or two sentences. These sentences are all taken from the Reading Passages you have just read in the Reading Comprehension of the Test Paper. You can refer back to the passages so as to identify their meanings in the context.

  71.A scientist who does research in economic psychology and who wants to predict the way in which consumers will spend their money must study consumer behavior.(Passage 1. Paragraph 1.)

  72.Investigations conducted at the same time in Great Britain, however, yielded results that were more in agreement with traditional assumptions about saving and spending patterns.(Passage 1. Paragraph 3.)

  73.These single parents must care for the children’s emotional and psychological needs while also supporting them financially.(Passage2. Line 16.)

  74.The threat of war, the reality of imprisonment during World War, one as a German citizen, and the unbearable heat in Africa did not deter him at all.(Passage 3. Line 17.)

  75.In a society where people are quite similar in many ways,there are fewer occasions for people to see the need or the opportunity for c hange because everything seems to be the same.(Passage 4. Paragraph 1.)  

  Part Ⅴ Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: Write a short passage on “Competition and Cooperation” with about 120 words. The first sentence of each paragraph is given below: 

  1. Competition is a common phenomenon in our social life.

  2. We often find competition and cooperation at the same time.

  3. While we are advocating competition, we can not forget cooperation.

  答案

  Part Ⅱ

  1

  短文大意 

  一个科学家如果要研究经济心理学,要预测消费者花钱的方式,必须研究消费者的行为表 现。假如问及某经济学家这样一个问题——收入较高的,收入稳定的和收入较低的人当中, 谁最爱借钱——他很可能回答后者,而事实上1947——1950年间调查表明是前者——收入较 高的人,这表明传统的关于收支的假设并不一定可靠。另一传统假设认为价格上涨时,人们 会迅速购买。人们同时在美国和英国对此进行了调查,其结果不大相同,但都似乎表明保持 价格稳定这一常见的商业政策是建立在正确理解消费者心理的基础上的。 

  21.答案D。

  【参考译文】 如果一个科学家要研究消费者行为,他必须研 究消费者的经济来源和消费 动机。

  【试题分析】 本题考查对长句子的理解。

  【详细解答】 这是一个寻找具体信息的题。见第一句话:“ 一个科学家要研究经济心理学,要预测顾客花钱的方式,必须研究顾客行为。”第二句话说明了如何研究的。“他必须获得 两手资料,一是消费者的财力,二是消费者的动机。”显然本题选D最为合适。 

  22.答案C。

  【参考译文】 根据传统假设(观念),下面哪组人最爱借钱? 

  【试题分析】 本题为寻找并区分具体信息题。

  【详细解答】 做本题时要仔细区分文中提到了两种说法,一种是传统认识, 一种是1947—1950年的回答。本题问的是传统认为,根据文章第二段第一句话应选C:“一般认为收入偏低的人越爱借钱。”如果是问从1947—1950 年的答案来看,则应选A,在那段时间收入高的人最爱借钱。 

  23.答案B。

  【参考译文】 根据本文内容,以下哪种说法不对? 

  【试题分析】 本题为判断正误题。

  【详细解答】 此题既可用直接法也可用排除法。如用直接法 , 从最后一段中间一句可以找到答案。文章谈到“有助于消费的情况是价格稳定,”而B却说是“价格增长” 与文章说 法不一致,故选B。如用排除法,A说“传统关于收支说法不总是可靠的”,可在第二段中间找 到答案。C说“ 保持价格平稳是常见的商业政策”可在最后一句找到答案。D项较难判断。 文中第二段说调查表明传统说法与现在调查不相符,在第三段开头说明了这是美国情况。然 后下一句又说英国调查却与传统说法相符,因此我们可以说英,美的结果不相同。 既然A,C,D 均能从文中找到根据,自然B便是答案了。 

  24.答案C。

  【参考译文】 美国研究统计表明,价格上涨时,人们会延迟 购买。

  【试题分析】 此题为寻找并理解具体信息题。

  【详细解答】 此题问当价格上涨时,人们会怎样。 文中通过 机械师一家的表现回答了这个问题。机械师一家本准备购买一辆新车,但他们延迟了购买。 用他太太的话说:“几个月 后我们将花更多的钱买肉和牛奶, 但其他方面花的钱却要少些了。”这说明当价格上涨时, 人们会推迟购物,故选C。

  25.答案A。

  【参考译文】 在储蓄和消费模式方面,美国与英国在同一时 期是否相同。

  【试题分析】 此题为间接推理题。

  【详细解答】 回答此题的中间项是关于收入和消费的传统看 法。 美国的调查结果与传统说法不相符,而英国却一致,因此美国和英国的调查结果是不同的, 至于说到哪好哪坏,文中 没有提到,故此题选A。

  2

  短文大意 

  近年来美国家庭规模已经减小,原因之一是生活费用上涨,父母常常负担孩子的一切花费 :学费、吃穿及娱乐花费。同时家庭成员之间已不如以前亲密。父母离异给父母及孩子都产 生不良影响,单亲家庭的孩子常为父母离异而自责且有不安全感,而单亲父(母)亲须单独负担 孩子的感情和心理需要而无暇顾及个人的兴趣。单亲父母重新组合时,也给孩子带来麻烦。 然而最近迹象表明情况有所好转,离婚率正在下降,也许美国人已意识到了家庭的重要性。 

  26.答案C。

  【参考译文】 过去美国家庭规模倾向于…… 

  【试题分析】 本题为直接寻找答案题。

  【详细解答】 本文第一句话说明了过去美国家庭规模很大。 

  27.答案D。

  【参考译文】 对那些负担孩子花费的父母而言,生活开支增 加是因为……

  【试题分析】 本题为直接寻找答案题,考查文章细节。 

  【详细解答】 回答此题要全面,仔细读文章不难发现,A.孩子 们读书时间延长;B.孩子们穿着越来越好;C.孩子们花更多的钱在娱乐上。文中说是造成生活消费增长的原因,因此要 选D。

  28.答案D。

  【参考译文】 破裂家庭给孩子和父母两方面带来什么问题? 

  【试题分析】 此题为细节归纳题。

  【详细解答】 这题可用排除法做。本题问破裂的家庭会给孩 子和家长带来什么困难。文中清楚说明孩子们不安定,因为要往来于父母之中, 孩子们的单亲父母得花更多的时间关心 他们的心理、情绪,除了经济负担外, 以致他们没时间去满足自己的兴趣。A父母不管孩子;B 孩子觉得自由; C父母忙于挣钱养活自己,这三项均与文章意见不符, 应排除掉,故选D。 

  29.答案C。

  【参考译文】 据作者看来,美国未来的家庭状况会如何? 

  【试题分析】 此题考查对作者态度的理解。

  【详细解答】 在文章最后作者指出有迹象表明情况好转,诸 如离婚率降低,出生率上升。也许美国人已认识到家庭生活的重要性,我们可以体会到作者对未来美国家庭生活情形是持 乐观态度的,所以选C“变好”。

  30.答案B。

  【参考译文】 这篇文章的标题可能是什么?

  【试题分析】 本题考查本文所涉及的主要话题。

  【详细解答】 纵观全篇,A.美国儿童;C.美国母亲;D.美国父 母, 三项均在文中提到过,但只是一个部分,都是B(美国家庭) 这个主题下的各个分支。而且文章主要还是讲述美国家 庭生活的种种,故B 正确。

  3

  短文大意 

  这是一篇人物介绍,Albert Schweitzer(1875—1965),出生于阿尔萨斯(当时属德国),他是有名的传教士,且因为他能演奏风琴而受到人们的尊敬。他很有才干,关心别人,这使 他开始注意医学。他获得了哲学和音乐的博士学位,他的妻子也对医学感兴趣而成为护士。 许多人都建议他在欧洲传教,但他最终还是决定去了非洲,他认为每人都有责任帮助别人。 他尤其关心受白人剥削的黑人,他自己挣钱购买设备并在非洲开了一家医院。战争的威胁, 作为德国公民在世界大战期间会被关押的现实,非洲难以忍受的酷热都丝毫未能阻碍他。 

  31.答案C。

  【参考译文】 Albert Schweitzer是位人道主义者。 

  【试题分析】 此题为推理题。

  【详细解答】 此题最好用排除法。Albert善于演奏风琴,而 不是钢琴,因此A 不对。他出生于Alsace属德国一部分,而不是非洲人,所以B不对。 他妻子是护士,而他不是,D也不对,C 说他是人道主义者,与文章意思相符。 

  32.答案B。

  【参考译文】 他在……方面有才干。 

  【试题分析】 此题为细节题。

  【详细解答】 此题用排除法比较好。从文章得知, 他的妻子 是自己对医学感兴趣而成为了一名护士。A说他训练妻子成为护士就不对了。C中称他“ 作为战士战斗”,文中没提到。 事实上他是用钱买设备,而不是make equipment, 且帮助他人也不应算作是才干,天才范畴, 故D不对。B项中的三点在文章第四句,第六句,倒数第六句都提到了,所以选B。 

  33.答案B。

  【参考译文】 尽管人们建议(他在欧洲传教),但他决定去非 洲……。

  【试题分析】 此题考查文章细节及对全文的理解。

  【详细解答】 从文中倒数第七句话来看,Albert感到有责任 帮助他人,尤其是关心受白人剥削的非洲黑人,所以B项正确。A错在他出生在德国而不是非洲,C他在非洲举办过 音乐会是为了购买设备和建医院帮助他人, 但举办音乐会并不是他去非洲的目的,D称他去非洲是为了挣钱就更不对了。 

  34.答案D。

  【参考译文】 为什么作者认为他是很有勇气的人? 

  【试题分析】 此题考查细节及全文理解。

  【详细解答】 在文章的倒数第四句话中, 作者指出他是一个 具有伟大力量的人,进而解释到他充满信心面对一切巨大的困难。倒数第三句又进一步说明战争的威胁及非洲难以忍受的 酷热都没使他气馁。所以A,B,C都包括了, 应选D。值得注意的是读者往往看到A就选了A, 没 有把选题看完整,另外,要清楚deter与discourage是近义词。 

  35.答案C。

  【参考译文】 Albert Schweitzer活到多少岁? 

  【试题分析】 此题为直接的计算题。

  【详细解答】 文章第一句指出他出生于1875, 最后一句他死 于1965,答案只能是C。

  4

  短文大意 

  在一个社会中,如果人们在很多方面很相似,那么社会变革就不容易发生;因为在这样的 社会中,很少有变革的需要和机会。相反地如果一个社会中人们在很多方面都各不相同,即 在一个混合型的社会里,社会变革就更容易发生,因为混合人种的社会在观点、兴趣和信仰 方面有更多的分歧。而这种分歧或争论促进社会变革。类似地,在同一社会内部,社会变革在物质文化方面比非物质文化方面更容易发生;而且 社会变革更容易逐渐地进行。 

  36.答案D。

  【参考译文】 哪种社会容易发生社会变革? 

  【试题分析】 此题为直接选择题。

  【详细解答】 文中第一句说明了多种类人的社会容易发生社 会变革, 故选D。 

  37.答案D。

  【参考译文】 在混合型社会里,在哪些方面可能存在分歧? 

  【试题分析】 此题为直接选择题。

  【详细解答】 文章开头第三句指出了混合人种的社会在观点 、兴趣、信仰方面有更多的分歧,所以选D。它包括了A,B,C。 

  38.答案B。

  【参考译文】 根据本文,下面哪项不正确? 

  【试题分析】 此题为判断正误题。

  【详细解答】 A与第二自然段第一句一致。第一自然段前部 分主要说明分歧或争论会促进社会变革, 所以C 是对的, 第二自然段第五行说得很清楚,social change is also likely to occur in the less basic and less emotional aspects of society.显然社会变革在社会的基本和情感方面会遇到更多的困难。 因此只有B是不对的。 第二自然段的中间也指出Social change is likely to occur in what has been learned lately in life rather than what was learned early. B的说法正好与此相反。 

  39.答案C。

  【参考译文】 如果在一个社会中人们在很多方面都相似,那 么社会变革不易发生,为什么?

  【试题分析】 此题为寻找并理解信息题。

  【详细解答】 第一自然段最后一句话说明了虽然情况有时不 尽人意,但这些相似的人们至少是习惯的,并无争议的。所以C说“人们习惯于他们的情况而很少认为有必要变化”是正确 的。

  40.答案B。

  【参考译文】 本文主要讨论什么内容? 【试题分析】 此题考查文章主旨。

  【详细解答】 综合全文可以看出所讲的主要还是决定社会变 革容易与否的一些因素,并不是社会变革的必要性与重大意义,所以选B。

  Part Ⅲ

  41.答案B。

  【参考译文】 约翰逊夫妇在决定买下之前先查看了那所房子。 

  【试题分析】 本题是词组意义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 look out意思是“当心”或“向外看”,通常作不及物动词词组使用;look over是及物动词词组,意为“检查,浏览,查看”;look after照料,照看;look on旁观

  【作者建议】此题可用排除法。 42.答案B。

  【参考译文】 为了制砖,工人们把粘土压成块状,然后在砖 窑里烧到必要的硬度。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查非谓语动词的用法。

  【详细解答】 句子需要的是目的状语,而D是不能作状语的。 根据空白后的宾语bricks,可排除被动形式的being made,又根据过去分词短语用作状语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景 或情况,所以A不对,而B不定式短语作状语表行为目的,正合适。 

  43.答案C。

  【参考译文】 很遗憾我妈妈不想和我一起去百货商店,要是 她愿意去的话,我会给她买 件毛衣。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查虚拟语气的倒装句式。

  【详细解答】 此题是表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的句子。原来从句的结构应是If sh e had been willing to go,但此题没有这样的答案,只有C,应用的是省去If并将had提到 主语之前的形式,A、B、D的形式均不正确。 

  44.答案B。

  【参考译文】 正是在20世纪20年代海明威与菲茨杰拉德之间 的友谊达到了高峰。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查强调句型。

  【详细解答】 根据其结构: It is( was) + 强调部分+ that 从句,只能选B。 

  45.答案A。

  【参考译文】 她几乎不需详述她的过去。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查倒装句及助动词need的用法。 

  【详细解答】 此题有两个考点:①表示否定意义的little放 在句首时,应使用倒装句式,将相应的助词(或be动词)提到主语前面。②need这个词既可以作实义动词,后接动词不 定式,也可作助动词,后接动词原形作谓语,后者尤其用于否定句中,而且need作为助动词跟其他助动词一样,可以提到主语前面,也可直接加not构成否定句。根据此句倒装要求,A是正确的,B项错,后面应加to,因为如果将did提前则表示need是实义动词,后接动dwell时,应用need to do的形式,另外句中“dwell on”意思是“细思,详述”。 

  46.答案C。

  【参考译文】 布朗先生是位可敬的老人,他的邻居都很尊敬 他。

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 respectful尊敬人的;respectable 受人尊敬 的, 值得人尊敬的;respective个别的;responsible有责任的。此句意为“ 布朗先生是一位值得尊敬的老人,邻居们都很 尊敬他。”显然C是正确的。 

  47.答案C。

  【参考译文】 此刻每个女孩都太忙于考虑自己的人身安全而 没太留意行李。

  【试题分析】 此题考查物主代词,人称代词的所有格形式。 

  【详细解答】 物主代词与each of the girls相对应,因此 要用第三人称单数形式的所有 格,即her。 

  48.答案B。

  【参考译文】 在晴朗的日子出去走走,远离城市喧嚣的人群 ,群山将给你无限的宁静感。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查分词的复合结构。

  【详细解答】 此题前一部分的主语是人,指人出去走走,而 后一部分的主语是山,两部分主语不一致,因此前一部分不能省主语而直接用动词ing形式,所以只能选B。 

  49.答案D。

  【参考译文】 冰在这个温度下融化得很快。 

  【试题分析】 此题为词汇题。

  【详细解答】 修饰谓语动词melted应用副词,而fast即是形 容词,又是副词,所以答案是D。 

  50.答案B。

  【参考译文】 我记得为这项工作我得了报酬,但我忘了具体数目。 

  【试题分析】 此题考查动词remember的搭配。

  【详细解答】 remember后可用动名词或用不定式作宾语。用 动名词表示“ 记得做过某事”;用不定式表示“记得去做某件事。” 本句意思是“ 我记得那件工作别人已付了钱给我,但具体多少我已忘了。” “我”与“付钱”是被动关系, 应用被动形式,所以选B。 D中的receive是收到的意思, 应用主动语态形式“receiving pay”。

  51.答案B。

  【参考译文】 大卫的母亲星期天很少做家务,我妈妈也不做。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题考查倒装句。

  【详细解答】 neither,nor,so位于句首,主谓部分倒装。谓 语只取与上句一致的助动词(或情态动词),其它谓语部分都省去。neither和nor 都表示否定,so表示肯定。本题中seldom 是否定意义,助动词是第三人称单数形式does,所以选B。D 错在too( 也) 不能用于否定句。 陈述句中若包含有never, no,hardly,scarcely等词,则应作否定句看待。 

  52.答案D。

  【参考译文】 无论在哪儿发现好的行为,他都给予赞扬。 

  【试题分析】 此题考语法兼词汇。

  【详细解答】 前半句为状语从句,wherever意思是无论在什 么地方,相当于no matter where,引导“无条件”的条件状语从句。 

  53.答案D。

  【参考译文】 他想知道,他的妻子的反应会是什么。 

  【试题分析】 此句考词序问题。

  【详细解答】 宾语从句中要用陈述句语序,所以只能选D。 

  54.答案C。

  【参考译文】 孩子们总不想在适当的时候睡觉,他们总是熬 夜到很晚。

  【试题分析】 本题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 A表示“占用”;B表示“站起来”;C表示“熬 夜”;D表示“建立”。根据句 意,只能选C。 

  55.答案B。

  【参考译文】 约翰一边走路,一边看信。

  【试题分析】 此题考查连词as及when的用法区别。

  【详细解答】 首先,at是介词,后不能跟从句。for连接句子 时意为“因为”,不符合此句 语境。 when 常表示一个动作紧接着另一动作发生;as可以表示两动作同时发生,不过持续时 间较短。

  56.答案C。

  【参考译文】 他得靠他自己生活,因为他没有父母可以依靠。 

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 keep on继续做某事; depend on依靠;depend with的搭配不对; C.rely on 依靠;D.go to求助于,促成。 

  57.答案B。

  【参考译文】 今晚咱们去看电影,好吗?

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查附加疑问句的用法。

  【详细解答】 祈使句也可附加疑问句。 谓语形式通常用will, 如果前部分是let’s形式, 附加问句常用shall。 

  58.答案D。

  【参考译文】 他从不参加舞会, 因为在那里他觉得不自在。 

  【试题分析】 此题为固定搭配。

  【详细解答】 ill at ease局促不安; at ease舒适的(地), 安心的(地),A、B、C 的表述 均不正确。 

  59.答案C。

  【参考译文】 这件衣服过去很时兴, 但是现在它已过时了。 

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【详细解答】 out of question没问题;out of order杂乱无 章; out of date过时; out of place不合适。只有C项符合句意。 

  60.答案C。

  【参考译文】 因为天气好,我决定出去郊游。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查分词的独立结构。

  【详细解答】 分词或分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语一般要 与句子的主语一致。如果不一致,在分词短语前要加上自己的逻辑主语,这种结构叫分词独立结构。本句中句子主语是I,所 以应加it作分词being的逻辑主语。 

  61. 答案D。

  【参考译文】 既然你觉得不舒服, 你最好还是去看看病。 

  【试题分析】 此题为语法结构辨析题。

  【详细解答】 had better后应接动词原形,B.必须,语气太强 烈。sb. would rather do sth.某人宁愿做某事,与本句意思不连贯。might as well+动词原形,意为“最好还是……” 。

  62.答案B。

  【参考译文】 我只希望回家。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查介词but后的动词形式。 

  【详细解答】 这里but=except。 but有时接无to 的不定词 。当but前面有do(did,done,doing)的时候,but后面接没有to的不定词。例:I did nothing but go home。如果but前用的是其他动词,but 后面的不定词就要加上to。 

  63.答案A。

  【参考译文】 如果你是像你所说的那样,我就不想带你去派 出所了。

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 run sb. in逮捕并带往派出所;be caught in 落入(陷阱),遇雨; make in表达不对;take sth.in吸收,领会。显然只能选A。 

  64.答案B。

  【参考译文】 为了避免交通耽搁人们自己开车,而这又产生 了另外的问题。

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 after all毕竟; in turn 依次; in case 万 一,如果; in time及时,只 有B符合题意。 

  65.答案C。

  【参考译文】 据说那些老房子拆倒了是为新的办公大楼让出 地方。

  【试题分析】 本题为词义辨析题。

  【详细解答】 provide for供应,备办(生活必需品等); supp ly 提供, 供给;make room for为……留出空间;improve改进。C最合题意。 

  66.答案D。

  【参考译文】 这位歌手在表演时对观众的反应很敏感。 

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【详细解答】 A为“ 多愁善感”的意思; B为“有理智的,可 察觉的”;C为“确实的,明确的”;D为“敏感的,灵敏的”。答案只能是D。 

  67.答案B。

  【参考译文】 他无法使这群人了解他的意图。 

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 get in 收获; get across解释清楚,使人了解 ;get along相处;get off下 车,从……下车。 

  68.答案A。

  【参考译文】 在滂沱大雨中骑车已是很糟的事,但更糟的是 他的车胎放了炮,最后一小时 只能推着自行车走。

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 Actually和As a matter of fact意思相同 ,即“实际上……”,“事实上……”,均不合题意。Even though“ 即使,纵然”,表示条件关系,也不合题意。To make ma tters worse“更糟的是”,有进一步说明和解释的含义,故选A。 

  69.答案B。

  【参考译文】 冬天来了,你可以将这些裙子收好直到明年夏 天再用。

  【试题分析】 此题为词义辨析题。

  【词义辨析】 do away with 废除,put away贮存,留下来(以 后用),get rid of去掉,give away分发,分送。 

  70. 答案A。

  【参考译文】 虽然我喜欢这帽子的颜色, 可是不喜欢它的式 样。

  【试题分析】 此题为语法题,考查while的用法。

  【详细解答】 while在这里的意思是although(虽然)。除此 之外while 作连词还可以表示 “当……时候”,或“而(whereas)”。

  Part Ⅳ

  71.【参考译文】 一个科学家如果要研究经济心理学,要预测消费者花钱的方式, 必须研究消费者的行为表现。

  【翻译技巧】 此题需用溶合法(即把原句中的主语与定语从句溶合在一起译成一个独立句 子的方法)和前置法(即把从句译成带有“的”字的定语词组,放在被修饰词之前,从而将复 合句译成汉语单句的方法),此外还要注意兼有状语职能的定语从句的翻译方法。 【翻译点评】 本句结构比较复杂,主句的主语A scientist(①)带有两个并列的定语从句who does research in economic psychology(②)和who wants to…their money(③),而后一个定语从句的宾语the way又带有自己的定语从句in which consumers…their money(④),主句的谓语是must study(⑤),宾语是consumer behaviour(⑥)。弄清本句结构后,不难发现两个并列的定语从句之间在逻辑上有条件关系,所以可以加上“如果”;另外,主语A scientist与定语从句溶合在一起来译,更符合汉语习惯,否则,译成“想要研究……而且要预测……的一个科学家”就太瞥脚了。

  72.【参考译文】 人们同时在英国进行了调查,结果表明其储蓄和消费模 式与传统的假定一致。

  【翻译技巧】 长句短译法、增词法、词类转换法。

  【翻译点评】 翻译时,有时会碰到一个较长的句子,通常是并列或复合句,而从汉语的表达 方式来看,往往句子比较短。因此对较长的句子,有时可以把从句,短语分开翻译,可适当地增 加一些词,译成相对独立的短句, 也就是所谓的长句短译。

  73.【参考译文】 这些单亲父母必须关心孩子们的情感和心理的需求,同 时还得从经济上资助他们。

  【翻译技巧】 分句法(把分词短语译成句子)。

  【翻译点评】 while可以表明“当……之时”,“而且”的意思,在此句中它表示两个同 时发生的动作,因此可将后面的分词短语译成与前面部分相并列的句子。 74.【参考译文】 战争的威胁,作为德国公民在世界大战期间会被关押的 现实, 非洲难以忍受的酷热都丝毫未能阻碍他。

  【翻译技巧】 本句使用“语序调整法”,并根据上下文推测 词义。

  【翻译点评】 此句翻译时有两点值得注意:第一,主语是相并列的几个名词性短语;第二, 要推测deter的意思。 从此句的前一句“他充满勇气地面对一些巨大的困难”。此句接着说 这些困难都完全未能deter他,可以推断deter是“阻止,制止,阻碍”的意思。 75.【参考译文】 在一个社会中当人们在很多方面都很相似时,就很少有能 够发生变化的需要和机会, 因为似乎一切事物都是千篇一律的。 【翻译技巧】 注意定语从句的翻译,使用溶合法并注意将定 语从句适当转换为时间状语。

  【翻译点评】 此题翻译时一方面要把where 引导的定语从句翻译出来, 另一方面此句中there are句型在翻译时可将for people中的people作后一句的主语来译。

  Part Ⅴ 写作指导

  这是一篇给出各段首句的议论文,要求对每句——即各段的主题句进行适当展开论述。议 论文通常由论点、论据、结论构成。本文已给出三个分论点,要求考生分别写出论据、结论 ,并使三段话形成统一的整体。

  第一段主题句意思是:竞争是我们社会生活中常见的现象,抓住Common phenomenon,从生活中找出一些存在竞争的情况,但要注意情况的典型性、普遍性,以便紧扣Common一词。这一段是引言段,写好十分重要,考生所给出的竞争现象应该与下文具体分析竞争与合作时的论据、例子有关系,则全文会显得不紧凑。

  第二段首句“我们常常发现竞争和合作同时并存”,下面的范文就举了一个恰当的例子, 在足球比赛时,竞争与合作的对立统一关系很好地得到证明。

  第三段首句是:“提倡竞争的同时,我们不能忘记合作。”这一段应该进一步阐述竞争与 合作的辨证关系,从而得出结论:只有在合作的基础上竞争才能很好地帮助我们实现目标, 满足我们国家现代化建设的需要。 

  Sample Writing

  Competition and Cooperation

  Competition is a common phenomenon in our social life. We compete when we play games, we try to do better than others in our study, and there is constant competition for jobs, money and so forth. We can say to some extent, competition is one of the motive forces of the development of society.

  We often find competition and cooperation at the same time. Think of a football game. Each team is competing with the other team, but each member of the team is cooperating with his or her teammates. In most cases, we can’t have competition without cooperation. Thus they are equally important.

  While we are advocating competition, we can not forget cooperation. Nothing is to be carried to extremes. Pure and exclusive competition leads to failures. Only competition together with cooperation helps us a great deal in obtaining our goals and satisfying our needs, especially in modernizing our country.

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