2019年12月英语四级全套模拟试卷（第23套）时间：2019-10-30 13:40:10 来源：文都网校 分享：
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
There is a difference between science and technology. Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems. Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships; technology has to do with tools, techniques, and procedures for implementing the finding of science.
Another distinction between science and technology has to do with the progress in each.
Progress in science excludes the human factor. Scientists, who seek to comprehend the universe and know the truth within the highest degree of accuracy and certainty, cannot pay attention to their own or other people's likes or dislikes or to popular ideas about the fitness of things. What scientists discover may shock or anger people-as did Darwin's theory of evolution. But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful; besides, we have the choice of refusing to believe it! But hardly so with technology; we do not have the choice of refusing to hear the sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft flying overhead; we do not have the option of refusing to breathe polluted air; and we do not have the option of living in a non-atomic age. Unlike science progress, technology must be measured in terms of the human factor. The legitimate purpose of technology is to serve people in general, not merely some people; and future generations, not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves. Technology must be humanistic if it is to lead to a better world.
21. The difference between science and technology lies in that _____.
A) the former provides answers to theoretical questions while the latter to practical problems
B) the former seeks to comprehend the universe while the latter helps change the material world
C) the former aims to discover the inter-connections of facts and the rules that explain them while the latter, to discover new designs and ways of making the things we use in our daily life
D) all of the above
22. Which of the following may be representative of science?
A) The improvement of people's life.
B) The theory of people's life.
C) Farming tools.
D) Mass production.
23. According to the author, scientific theories _____.
A) must be strictly objective
B) usually take into consideration people's likes and dislikes
C) should conform to popular opinions
D) always appear in perfect and finished forms
24. The author states that technology itself _____.
A) is responsible for widespread pollution and resource exhaustion
B) should serve those who wish to gain advantage for themselves
C) will lead to a better world if put to wise use
D) will inevitably be for bad purpose
25. The tone of the author in this passage is _____.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Americans have always been ambivalent in their attitudes toward education. On the one hand, free and universal public education was seen as necessary in a democracy, for how else would citizens learn how to govern themselves in a responsible way? On the other hand, America was always a country that offered financial opportunities for which education was not needed: on the road from rags to riches, schooling-beyond the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic-was an unnecessary detour.
Even today, it is still possible for people to achieve financial success without much education, but the number of situations in which this is possible is decreasing. In today's more complex world, the opportunities for financial success is closely related to the need for education, especially higher education.
Our society is rapidly becoming one whose chief product is information, and dealing with this information requires more and more specialized education. In other words, we grow up learning more and more about fewer and fewer subjects.
In the future, this trend is likely to continue. Tomorrow's world will be even more complex than today's world, and, to manage this complexity, even more specialized education will be needed.
26. The topic treated in this passage is _____.
A) education in general
B) Americans' attitudes
C) higher education
D) American education
27. Americans' attitudes toward education have always been _____.
A) certain B) contradictory
C) ambitious D) unclear
28. Today, financial success is closely related to the need for _____.
A) higher education B) public education
C) responsible citizens D) learning the basics
29. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that _____.
A) information is our only product
B) education in the future will be specialized
C) we are entering an age of information
D) we are living in an age of information
30. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A) The History of American Education.
B) The Need for Specialized Education.
C) The Future of the American Educational System.
D) Attitudes toward American Education.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
A growing world population and the discoveries of science may alter this pattern of distribution in the future. As men slowly learn to master diseases, control floods, prevent famines, and stop wars, fewer people die every year; and in consequence the population of the world is steadily increasing. In 1925 there were about 2,000 million people in the world; by the end of the century there may well be over 4,000 million.
When numbers rise the extra mouths must be fed. New lands must be brought under cultivation, or land already farmed made to yield larger crops. In some areas the accessible land is so intensively cultivated that it will be difficult to make it provide more food. In some areas the population is so dense that the land is parceled out in units too tiny to allow for much improvement in farming methods. Were a large part of this farming population drawn off into industrial occupations, the land might be farmed much more productively by modern methods.
There is now a race for science, technology, and industry to keep the output of food rising faster than the number of people to be fed. New strains of crops are being developed which will thrive in unfavorable climates: there are now farms beyond the Arctic Circle in Siberia and North America; irrigation and dry-farming methods bring arid lands under the plough, dams hold back the waters of great rivers to ensure water for the fields in all seasons and to provide electric power for new industries; industrial chemistry provides fertilizers to suit particular soils; aeroplanes spray crops to destroy locusts and many plant diseases. Every year some new means is devised to increase or to protect the food of the world.
31. The author says that the world population is growing because _____.
A) there are many rich valleys and fertile plains
B) the pattern of distribution is being altered
C) people are living longer
D) new land is being brought under cultivation
32. The author says that in densely populated areas the land might be more productively farmed if _____.
A) the plots were subdivided
B) a large part of the people moved to a different part of the country
C) industrial methods were used in farming
D) the units of land were made much larger
33. We are told that there are now farms beyond the Arctic Circle. This has been made possible by _____.
A) producing new strains of crops
B) irrigation and dry-farming methods
C) providing fertilizers
D) destroying pests and disease
34. Which of these words is nearest in meaning to the word "strains"?
A) types B) sizes
C) seeds D) harvests
35. The author's main purpose is to _____.
A) argue for a belief B) describe a phenomenon
C) entertain D) propose a conclusion
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies-and other creatures-learn to do things because certain acts lead to "rewards"; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological(生理的) "drives" as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.
It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome.
Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to "reward" the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children's responses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement "switched on" a display of lights-and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as many as three turns to one side.
Papousek's light display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would "smile and bubble" when the display came on. Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control.
36. According to the author, babies learn to do things which .
A) are directly related to pleasure
B) will meet their physical needs
C) will bring them a feeling of success
D) will satisfy their curiosity
37. Papousek noticed in his studies that a baby .
A) would make learned responses when it saw the milk
B) would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink
C) would continue the simple movements without being given milk
D) would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink
38. In Papousek's experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to .
A) have the lights turned on
B) be rewarded with milk
C) please their parents
D) be praised
39. The babies would "smile and bubble" at the lights because .
A) the lights were directly related to some basic "drives"
B) the sight of the lights was interesting
C) they need not turn back to watch the lights
D) they succeeded in "switching on" the lights
40. According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of .
A) a basic human desire to understand and control the world
B) the satisfaction of certain physiological needs
C) their strong desire to solve complex problems
D) a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills
Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
41. It's the in this country to go out and pick flower on the first day of spring.
A) case B) custom C) habit D) precedent
42. He didn't take the flat because he couldn't afford the .
A) hire B) fare C) rent D) salary
43. I've made an for you to see the dentist at 5 o'clock tomorrow.
A) appointment B) interview
C) opportunity D) assignation
44. The house was poorly built; for , the roof leaked.
A) short B) certain
C) one thing D) sure
45. the weather is concerned, I do not think it matters.
A) So long as B) So far as
C) As long as D) So far
46. The continuous rain set the harvesting of wheat by two weeks.
A) off B) back C) down D) about
47. The helicopter hovered the trees.
A) in B) over C) down D) up
48.The mother made a shirt for the boy out of the of the cloth.
A) odd and end B) odd and ends
C) odds and end D) odds and ends
49. Let's get this old barn. It's of no use to us.
A) over B) ready
C) rid of D) used to
50. George's ability to learn from observations and experience greatly to his success in public life.
A) owed B) contributed C) attached D) related
51. I asked him where my sister was, and he the store across the street.
A) nodded B) indicated C) figured D) guessed
52. They are staying with us the time being until they find a place of their own.
A) during B) for C) since D) in
53. 100 competitors had the race.
A) put their names for B) entered for
C) put themselves for D) taken part
54. He me by two games to one.
A) beat B) conquered C) gained D) won
55. They have put the bird in a cage to it from flying away.
A) avoid B) prevent C) forbid D) control
56. In recent years, new buildings have up like mushrooms in the city.
A) jumped B) sprung C) leapt D) put
57. I from among the crowd an old friend of mine whom I hadn't seen for ten years.
A) figured out B) picked out
C) realized D) picked over
58. I thought he'd never anything, but it's turned out that I was wrong.
A) arrive B) amount to C) reach for D) add to
59. He managed to pay off his debts.
A) anyhow or other B) anyhow or another
C) somehow or other D) somehow or another
60. You'd better not Mr. Ganz. He may get angry.
A) play a joke on B) play out
C) play into the hands of D) play at
61. We existed on nothing but the necessities.
A) empty B) bare C) hollow D) undressed
62. The seasons change, independent anyone's wishes.
A) on B) to C) with D) of
63. The mail was for two days because of the snowstorm.
A) misled B) lost C) delayed D) damaged
64. He has been absent class for quite some time.
A) in B) for C) with D) from
65. I owe a great deal my parents and teachers.
A) to B) for C) toward D) of
66. We must manage to do our work better with people.
A) less money and few
B) less money and fewer
C) little money and less
D) few money and less
67. Mr. Black is to our English evening.
A) more pleased than to come
B) more pleased to come than
C) more than pleased to come
D) more pleasing than to come
68. You that car with the brakes out of order. You might have had a serious accident.
A) ought to drive B) oughtn't do drive
C) ought to have driven D) oughtn't to have driven
69. If it for their support, we would be in a very difficult position.
A) is not B) weren't C) was not D) be not
70. If only we as we were told! This would never have happened.
A) would do B) had done C) do D) did
Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage.
Everyone ___71___ of the President of the US ___72___ the most powerful man in ___73___. But when the representatives of the 13 former British colonies ___74___ to draw up the constitution of the new country ___75___ 1788, ___76___ of them were not sure whether they ___77___ to have a President at all. There were even ___78___ who ___79___ a king, ___80___ their successful war against the British king, George III. The decision was in doubt ___81___ the last moment. One group wanted ___82___ for life, while ___83___ suggested that ___84___ not be a President, because a Committee would govern the country better; a third group ___85___ a President ___86___ term of office would last seven years but who could not stand for reelection, because they were afraid he would spend his time ___87___ votes at the next election. In the end they chose George Washington as President for four years and let him ___88___ for reelection because they trusted him. But they were ___89___ to make rules in case a future President ___90___ badly and these rules were used to get rid of President Nixon two hundreds years later.
71. A) use to think B) think C) thinks D) uses to think
72. A) to be B) being C) like D) as
73. A) western world B) the western world C) accident D) the accident
74. A) found B) met C) encountered D) put together
75. A) at B) by C) on D) in
76. A) a number B) a great deal C) a large amount D) the most
77. A) should B) would C) needed D) must
78. A) few B) a few C) little D) a little
79. A) had preferred B) would have preferred C) should have preferred D) were preferring
80. A) although B) however C) nevertheless D) in spite of
81. A) until B) as far as C) so far as D) by
82. A) that the President was elected
B) that the President would be elected
C) to elect the President
D) to be elected the President
83. A) another B) other C) the other D) some other
84. A) it should B) it would C) there should D) there would
85. A) would have liked B) would rather C) would like D) would be liking
86. A) that's B) whose C) which D) of which
87. A) looking for B) to look for C) to look at D) looking at
88. A) stand B) to stand C) be standing D) that he stood
89. A) so careful B) too careful C) careful enough D) enough careful
90. A) would carry B) carried C) would behave D) behaved
Part V Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic "The Expenses of an Average Worker". You should study the following table carefully and base your composition on the outlines given below. You should write at least 100 words.
1. The changes in the worker's expenses from 1990 to 2000.
2. The possible reasons for the changes.
3. My prediction.
Year Food (%) Clothing (%) Daily articles (%) Entertainment (%) Education (%) Total income (yuan)
1990 50 8 20 2 10 5000
2000 20 15 10 12 30 12000
The Expenses of an Average Worker
21. DBACC 26. DBABD 31. CDAAA 36. CCADA
41. BCACB 46. BBDCB 51. BBBAB 56. BBBCA 61. BDCDA 66. BCDBB
71. CDBBD 76. ACBBD 81. ACACC 86. BAACC