2019年12月英语四级全套模拟试卷（第16套）时间：2019-10-09 14:33:05 来源：文都网校 分享：
Questions 36-45 are based onthe following passage.
If it were only necessary to decidewhether to teach elementary science to everyone on a mass basis or to findind thegifted few and take them as far as they can go, our task would be fairlysimple. The public school 36_________ ,however, has no suchchoice, for the job must be 37_________ on at the same time.Because we depend so 38_________ uponscience and technology for our progress,we must produce 39_________ in many fields. Because wc live in ademocraticnation, whose citizens make the policies for the nation, largenumbers of us must be educated to understand, tosupport, and when necessary,to 40_________ the work of experts. The public school musteducate both producars andusers of scientific services.
In education, there should be a goodbalance among the branches of knowledge that contribute to effectivethinkingand wise judgment. Such balance is 41_________ by too much emphasison any one field. This question ofbalance involves not only the relation of thenatural sciences, the social sciences, and the arts but also relative 42_________ "among the natural sciencestbemselves.
Similarly, wc must have a balance betweencurrent and 43_________ knowledge. The attention of the public is 44_________drawn to new possibilities inscientific fields and the discovery of new knowledge; these should not beallowed toturn our attention away from the sound,45_________ materials thatform the basis of courses for beginners.
B . heavily
Beauty and Body Image in theMedia
A. Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women—and their bodyparts--sell everything from food to cars.Popular film and television actressesare becoming younger, taller and thinner. Some have even been known tofaint onthe set from lack of food. Women's magazines are full &articles urging thatif they can just lose thoselast twentypounds, they'll have it all—the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex,and a rewarding career
B. Why arc standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majorityofwhom are naturally larger and moremature than any of the models? The roots,some analysts say, are economic. By presenting an ideal difficult toachieve andmaintain, the cosmetic and diet product industries arc assured of growth andprofits. And it's noaccident that youth is increasingly promoted, along withthinness, as an essential criterion of beauty. If not allwomen need to loseweight, for sure they're all aging, says the Quebec Action Network for Women'sHealth inits 2001 report. And, according to the industry, age is a disasterthat needs to be dealt with.
C. The stakes are huge. On the one hand, women who are insecure about their bodies arc more likely tobuybeauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. It is estimated that the dietindustry alone is worth anywherebetween 40 to 100 billion (U.S.. a year selling temporary weight loss (90% to 95% of dieters regainthe lostweight.. On the other hand, research indicatesthat exposure to images of thin, young, air-brushed femalebodies is linked todepression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habitsin womenand girls.
D. The American research group Anorexia Nervosa & Related EatingDisorders, Inc. says that one out of everyfour college-aged women usesunhealthy methods of weight control--including fasting, skippingmeals,excessive exercise, laxative (泻药. abuse, andself-induced vomiting. The pressure to be thin is also affectingyoung girls:the Canadian Women's Health Network warns that weight control measures are nowbeing takenby girls as young as 5 and 6. American statistics are similar.Several studies, such as one conducted by MarikaTiggemann and Levina Clark in2006 titled "Appearance Culture in 9- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media andPeerInfluences on Body Dissatisfaction," indicate that nearly half of allpreadolescent girls wish to be thinner, andas a result have engaged in a dietor are aware of the concept of dieting. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that35percent of girls 6 to 12 years old have been on at least one diet, and that 50to 70 percent of normal weightgirls believe they are overweight. Overallresearch indicates that 90% of women are dissatisfied with theirappearance insome way. Media activist Jean Kilbourne concludes that, "Women are sold tothe diet industryby the magazines we read and the television programs we watch,almost all of which make us feel anxiousabout our weight."
E. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that media images of femalebeauty are unattainable for all but a verysmall number of women. Researchersgenerating a computer model of a woman with Barbie-doll proportions,forexample, found that her back would be too weak to support the weight of herupper body, and her bodywould be too narrow to contain more than halfa liverand a few centimeters of bowel. A real woman built thatway would suffer fromchronic diarrhea ( 慢性腹泻. and eventually die frommalnutrition. Jill Barad,President of Mattel (which manufactures Barbie., estimated that 99% of girls aged 3 to 10 years old own atleast oneBarbie doll. Still, the number of real life women and girls who seek asimilarly underweight body isepidemic, and they can suffer equally devastatinghealth consequences. In 2006 it was estimated that up to450,000 Canadian womenwere affected by an eating disorder.
F. Researchers report thatwomen's magazines have ten and one-half times more ads and articlespromotingweight loss than men's magazines do, and over three-quarters of thecovers of women's magazines include atleast one message about how to change awoman's bodily appearance--by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery.Television andmovies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a woman's worth.Canadianresearcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the femalecharacters in TV situation comedies areunderweight, and only one in twenty areabove average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negativecomments frommale characters about their bodies ("How about wearing a sack?" ., and 80 percent of thesenegative comments are followed by cannedaudience laughter.
G. There have been efforts in the magazine industry to buck (抵制，反抗. the trend. For several years the Quebecmagazine Coup de Pouce hasconsistently included full-sized women in their fashion pages and Chatelainehaspledged not to touch up photos and not to include models less than 25 yearsof age. In Madrid, one of theworld's biggest fashion capitals, ultra-thinmodels were banned from the runway in 2006. Furthermore Spainhas recentlyundergone a project with the aim to standardize clothing sizes through using aunique process inwhich a laser beam is used to measure real life women's bodiesin order to find the most tree to lifemeasurement.
H. Another issue is the representation of ethnically diverse women inthe media. A 2008 study conducted byJuanita Covert and Travis Dixon titled"A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal ofWomen ofColor in Mainstream Women's Magazines" found that although there was anincrease in therepresentation of women of c01our, overall white women wereoverrepresented in mainstream women'smagazines from 1999 to 2004.
I. The barrage of messagesabout thinness, dieting and beauty tells "ordinary" women that theyare always inneed of adjustment--and that the female body is an object to beperfected. Jean Kilboume argues that theoverwhelming presence of media imagesof painfully thin women means that real women's bodies have become invisible in the mass media。 The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many womeninternalizethese stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industry'sstandards. Women learn to comparethemselves to other women, and to compete withthem for male attention: This focus on beauty and desirability"effectivelydestroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate."
46、A report in Teen magazineshowed that 50% to 70% girls with normal weight think that they need to lose weight.
47、On the whole, for 6 yearswhite women had been occupying much more space in mainstream women's magazines since 1999.
48、Some negative effects suchas depression and unhealthy eating habits in females are related to their being exposed to images of thin and young femalebodies.
49、The mass media has helpedboost the cosmetic and the diet industries.
50、It is reported that thereis at least one message about the methods for women to change their bodilyappearance on more than three-quarters of the coversof women's magazines.
51、Some film and televisionactresses even faint on the scene due to eating too little.
52、Too much concern withappearance makes it impossible to change such abnormal trend.
53、Researchers found that areal woman with Barbie-doll proportions would eventually die from malnutrition.
54、The Quebec magazine Coup dePouce resists the trend by consistently including full-sized women in their fashion pages for several years.
55、According to some analysts,the fundamental reason of imposing standards of beauty on women is economic
Questions 56-60are based onthe following passage.
Is it possible to persuade mankind to livewithout war? War is an ancient institution which has existed for atleast sixthousand years. It was always bad and usually foolish, but in the past thehuman race managed to live withit. Modern ingenuity (创造力. has changed this. Either Man will abolishwar, or war will abolish Man. For thepresent, it is nuclear weapons that causethe most serious danger, but bacteriological or chemical weapons, maybeforelong, offer an even greater threat. If we succeed in abolishing nuclearweapons, our work will not be done. Itwill never be done until we havesucceeded in abolishing war. To do this, we need to persuade mankind tolookupon international questions in a new way, not as contests of forec, inwhich the victory goes to the side which ismost skillful in killing people, butby arbitration (调解. in accordance with agreedprinciples of law. It is not easyto change very old mental habits, but this iswhat must be attempted.
There are those who say that the adoptionoft_his or that ideology would prevent war. I believe this to be a bigerror.All ideologies are based on dogmatic ( 教条式的. statements which are, at best, doubtful, and at worst,totallyfalse. Their adherents believe in them fanatically (狂热地. that they are willing to go to war in support ofthem.
Themovement of world opinion during the past few years has been very largely suchas we can welcome. Ithas become a commonplace ( 老生长谈. that nuclear war must be avoided. Of course very difficultproblemsremain in the world, but the spirit in which they are being approachedis a better one than it was some years ago. Ithas begun to be thought, even bythe powerful men who decide whether we shall live or die, that negotiations should reach agreements even if both sides donot find these agreements wholly satisfactory. It has begun to beunderstoodthat the important conflict nowadays is not between different countries, butbetween Man and the atombomb.
56、This passage implies thatwar now is _________
A.worse than in the past
B.as badas in the past
C.not so dangerous as in the past
D.as necessary as in the past
57、In the sentence "To dothis, we need to persuade mankind... "(Line 6, Para.1 ), "this" refers to _________
A.solving international problems
D.living a peaceful life
58、From Paragraph 2 we learnthat the author of the passage
A.is a supporter of some modem ideologies
B.does not think that the adoption of any ideology could prevent war
C.believes that the adoption of some ideologies could prevent war
D.has no doubt about the truth of any ideologies
59、The last paragraph suggeststhat_________
A.international agreements can be reached more easily now
B.man begins to realize the danger of nuclear war
C.nuclear war will definitely not take place
D.world opinion welcomes nuclear war
60、According to theauthor,_________.
A.war is the only way to solve internatioual disputes
B.war will be less dangerous because of the improvement of weapons
C.it is impossible for man to live without war
D.war must be abolished if man wants to survive
Questions61-65 are based onthe following passage.
A useful definition of an air pollutantis a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to the atmospherein suchquantities as to affect humans, animals, vegetation, or material adversely (有害地.. Air pollution requires avery flexibledefinition that permits continuous change. When the first air pollution lawswere established inEngland in the fourteenth century, air pollutants werelimited to compounds that could be seen or smelled—a farcry (悬殊的差别. from the extensive list of harmful substances known today. Astechnology has developed andknowledge of the health aspects of variouschemicals has increased, the list of air pollutants has lengthened. Inthefuture, even water vapor (水蒸气. might be consideredan air pollutant under certain conditions.
Many of the more important airpollutants, such as sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides,arefound in nature. As the Earth developed, the concentrations ( 浓度. of these pollutants were altered byvariouschemical reactions; they became components in biogeochemical (生物地球化学的. cycles. These serve as an airpurification scheme by allowing thecompounds to move from the air to the water or soil. On a global basis,nature'soutput of these compounds dwarfs that resulting from human activities. However,human productionusually occurs in a localized area, such as a city.
In this localized region, human outputmay be dominant and may temporarily overload the natural purificationscheme ofthe cycles. The result is an increased concentration of noxious ( 有害的. chemicals in the air. Theconcentrations atwhich the adverse effects appear will be greater than the concentrations thatthe pollutants wouldhave in the absence of human activities. The actualconcentration need not be large for a substance to be apollutant; in fact thenumerical value tells us little until we know how much of an increase thisrepresents over the concentration that would occur naturally in the area. Forexample, sulfur dioxide has detectable health effects at0.08 parts per million(ppm., which is about 400 times its natural level.Carbon monoxide, however, has a naturallevel of 0.1 ppm and is not usually apollutant until its level reaches about 15 ppm.
61、It can be inferred from thefirst paragraph that _________
A.water vapor is an air pollutant in localized areas
B.the definition of air pollution will continue to change
C.a substance becomes an air pollutant only in cities
D.most air pollutants today can be seen or smelled
62、In what way can naturalpollutants play an important role in controlling air pollution?
A.They function as part of a purification process.
B.They are dwarfed by the pollutants produced by human activities.
C.They are less harmful to living beings than are other pollutants.
D.They have existed since the Earth developed.
63、According to the passage,the numerical value Of the concentration level of a substance is only useful if
A.the other substances in the area are known
B.it is a localized area
C.it can be calculated quickly
D.the naturally occurring level is also known
64、Which of the following isbest supported by the passage?
A.To effectively control pollution, local government should regularlyrevise the air pollution laws.
B.One of the most important steps in preserving natural lands is tobetter enforce air pollution laws.
C.Scientists should be consulted in order to establish uniform limitsfor all air pollutants.
D.Human activities have great impact on air pollution.
65、The passage mainlydiscusses _________
A.the economic impact on air pollution
B.how much damage air pollutants can cause
C.what constitutes an air pollutant
D.the quantity of compounds added to the atmosphere
36-45 FNBMO HKCIE
46-55 DHCBF AIEBG
56-65 ACBAD BADDB